Panic and Recover as Error Handling Mechanisms in Go


In Go, the generally accepted idiomatic way to handle error conditions is via the builtin error type. In most situations, this leads to clear and easy to understand error handling code.

This isn’t always the case though. When dealing with a large number of type assertions, panic and recover can lead to elegant and easy to understand code.

I recently came across this sort of situation while writing a decoder for .torrent files.

This blog post will go through a simplified version of the problem, exhibiting how and why panic and recover allow better code to be crafted in this particular situation.

The Problem

A .torrent file consists of an encoded Value. In general, a Value can either be an int, a string, or a map[string]Value:

// Value is either `int`, `string`, or `map[string]Value`.
type Value interface{}

However, Values that are encoded inside .torrent files will contain very specific structures (the .torrent structure given here is a simplified version of reality. For the full details of real .torrent files, the spec can be found here).

The top level Value in a .torrent file is a map[string]Value. It has two keys, "announce" and "info". The "announce" value is a string, which is the announce URL of the torrent’s tracker. The "info" value is another map[string]Value. This map also has two keys, "name" and "piece length". The "name" value contains a string, which is the suggested name of the torrent. The "piece length" value contains an int, which is the number of bytes in each torrent piece.

The task is to take the top level Value, and extract it into the following type:

type MetaInfo struct {
    AnnounceURL string
    Name        string
    PieceLength int

Missing keys or incorrect types are errors. Extra keys should be ignored (since they might be file format extensions).

Solution A (traditional error handling)

The traditional approach is to use checked type assertions, returning an error if the type assertion fails.

func DecodeMetaInfo(v Value) (MetaInfo, error) {
    var m MetaInfo
    err := errors.New("invalid meta info")

    topLevelMap, ok := v.(map[string]Value)
    if !ok {
        return m, err
    if m.AnnounceURL, ok = topLevelMap["announce"].(string); !ok {
        return m, err
    infoMap, ok := topLevelMap["info"].(map[string]Value)
    if !ok {
        return m, err
    if m.Name, ok = infoMap["name"].(string); !ok {
        return m, err
    if m.PieceLength, ok = infoMap["piece length"].(int); !ok {
        return m, err
    return m, nil

Solution B (panic and recover)

An alternate solution is to use recover() to check for any panics, and then use non-checked type assertions. This automatically takes care of the error cases if the type assertions fail.

func DecodeMetaInfo(v Value) (m MetaInfo, err error) {
    defer func() {
        if r := recover(); r != nil {
            err = errors.New("invalid meta info")

    topLevelMap := v.(map[string]Value)
    m.AnnounceURL = topLevelMap["announce"].(string)
    infoMap := topLevelMap["info"].(map[string]Value)
    m.Name = infoMap["name"].(string)
    m.PieceLength = infoMap["piece length"].(int)
    return m, nil


While the line count between the two solutions isn’t dramatically different, I think the second is much easier to read once familiar with the panic and recover pattern. The logic isn’t cluttered with error handling like it is in the first solution.

The downside to the second solution is that it’s impossible to provide a custom error value for each error case. For my purposes, this didn’t really matter. The end user of the program isn’t going to be able to ‘fix’ a torrent if it’s not well formed, they just need to know that it cannot be loaded.

© Peter Stace 2017